What Are The Disorders Associated With Estrogen? Estrogen Receptors And Human Disease


Estrogen is a hormone that plays a crucial role in shaping your health and well-being. It is famous for its role in women’s reproductive health, but its impact goes beyond that. 

Think of estrogen as a key player in your body’s health team that influences everything from your bones to your heart. In this blog, we’ll explore what estrogen does, how much of it is normal, and the health issues that can happen when its levels are off balance. 

What Is Estrogen? What Does Estrogen Do For A Woman?

Estrogen, a vital hormone, is particularly recognized for its role in female sexual and reproductive health. This hormone is a group of chemically similar hormones, including estrone, estriol, and estradiol. 

Functions Of Estrogen

Produced predominantly in the ovaries in women, estrogen is also synthesized in smaller amounts in the adrenal glands and fat issues. In men, smaller quantities of estrogen are produced in the testes and adrenal glands, underscoring its importance in both sexes. However, its impact is more pronounced in women. 

Functions Of Estrogen

Estrogen plays a multitude of roles in the human body. Its functions are particularly complex and vital in women. Below are the key functions of estrogen:

1. Regulation Of The Menstrual Cycle

Estrogen plays a vital role in the menstrual cycle, particularly in preparing the endometrium for potential pregnancy. It supports the growth and thickening of the uterine lining pre-ovulation and regulates the menstrual flow. 

2. Development Of Reproductive Organs

Estrogen is essential for the development of female reproductive organs like uterus, fallopian tubes, and vagina. It also ensures the wellness of vaginal health, including lubrication and thickness. 

3. Breast Development

During puberty, estrogen stimulates the growth of breast tissue. Additionally, if we talk about pregnancy, it prepares the mammary glands for future breast milk production. 

4. Maintenance Of Bone Density

Critical for bone health, estrogen aids in the absorption and retention of calcium in bones. It is vital for preventing conditions like osteoporosis, particularly after menopause.

5. Impact On Skin Health

Estrogen contributes significantly to skin health, enhancing skin elasticity and moisture. It plays a key role in maintaining a youthful skin appearance and aids in wound healing.

6. Cardiovascular Health

Estrogen has a protective role when it comes to heart health. It aids in maintaining the elasticity of arteries, reducing the risk of atherosclerosis, and positively influences cholesterol levels, promoting a healthier lipid profile. 

7. Mood And Neurological Function

This hormone has a notable impact on mood and emotional states by influencing neurotransmitter systems in the brain. It’s also thought to play a role in protecting cognitive function and reducing the risk of neurodegenerative diseases.

8. Cholesterol Regulation 

Estrogen helps regulate cholesterol by increasing levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, or “good” cholesterol) and reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL, or “bad” cholesterol),  which is beneficial for improving cardiovascular health. 

9. Influences On Hair And Pelvic Anatomy

Estrogen affects the distribution as well as the texture of body hair in females. It also influences the development of the female pelvic anatomy, contributing to wider hips and a broader pelvic bone structure. 

10. Brain Health

Estrogen is believed to have neuroprotective effects, potentially playing a role in reducing the risks of conditions like Alzheimer’s disease. It influences various brain functions like memory and cognitive processes. 

What Are Normal Estrogen Levels?

Normal estrogen levels can vary depending on several factors, including age, sex, and the specific phase of the menstrual cycle in women. It’s important to note that estrogen levels are measured in picograms per milliliter (pg/mL). 

For Women:

Menstruating Phase
  • Follicular phase (beginning of the cycle): about 30-120 pg/mL.
  • Ovulatory phase (mid-cycle): levels can peak up to 130-400 pg/mL.
  • Luteal phase (post-ovulation): ranges from approximately 70-250 pg/mL.
Postmenopausal Women

Generally, levels drop to around 10-20 pg/mL, but can vary. 

For Men:

Adult men: Generally, men have estrogen levels ranging from 10-50 pg/mL.

For Children:

Prepubertal Children: Generally have lower levels, often similar to postmenopausal women. 

However, please note that these numbers are approximate and can vary from person to person. Additionally, various factors like hormonal birth control, menopause, and pregnancy can affect estrogen levels. 

Common Conditions And Disorders Associated With Estrogen

Disorders Associated With Estrogen

Estrogen plays a significant role in various bodily functions, and imbalances in its levels can lead to a range of disorders. Here are the common conditions associated with estrogen:

High Estrogen Levels

  • Estrogen dominance: It can lead to symptoms like weight gain, bloating, mood swings, and irregular menstrual cycles. It is often seen in conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity.
  • Breast and uterine cancers: Excess estrogen can stimulate the overgrowth of breast and uterine tissues. It increases the risk of cancer in these organs.
  • Fibroids and Endometriosis: High estrogen levels can contribute to the development of uterine fibroids and endometriosis, causing pelvic pain and irregular menstrual cycles.
  • Menstrual problems: Women may experience heavy or irregular cycles due to high estrogen levels. 

Low Estrogen Levels

  • Menopause and perimenopause: It is characterized by a natural decline in estrogen, leading to symptoms like night sweats, hot flashes, and mood swings.
  • Osteoporosis: Estrogen helps maintain bone density, but low levels can lead to an increased risk of Osteoporosis and fractures.
  • Cardiovascular Issues: Low levels of estrogen can increase the risk of heart disease.
  • Atrophic vaginitis: Reduced estrogen levels lead to thinning and dryness of vaginal walls. It ultimately leads to painful intercourse and discomfort.
  • Mood disorders: Estrogen influences mood and brain function; its decline can lead to depression or mood swings. 

Other Conditions

  • Thyroid disorders: Estorgen levels can influence thyroid function and vice versa.
  • Autoimmune diseases: Some Autoimmune conditions are also influenced by hormonal changes, including those in estrogen levels. 

Sum Up

Estrogen is a key hormone in both men and women that plays a crucial role in numerous bodily functions. The balance of estrogen levels is important for maintaining overall well-being. 

Awareness of how estrogen levels can affect the body is a critical step in managing and preventing health issues. Regular checkups, a balanced lifestyle, and open communication with healthcare providers are key to navigating the complexities of hormonal health. 


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  3. Fuentes N, Silveyra P. Estrogen receptor signaling mechanisms (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6533072/)Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol. 2019;116:135-170. Accessed 2/7/2022.

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Dr. David G Kiely is a distinguished Medical Reviewer and former General Medicine Consultant with a wealth of experience in the field. Dr. Kiely's notable career as a General Medicine Consultant highlights his significant contributions to the medical field.

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